Friday, May 4, 2012

VW Jetta Hybrid

VW Jetta Hybrid

VW Jetta Hybrid
The new Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid has made its world debut at the 2012 North American International Auto Show in Detroit, bringing electric drive to a new class of Volkswagen. Propulsion comes from a high-tech 1.4-litre TSI 150 PS petrol engine and a 20 kW zero-emissions electric motor. Together, these provide not merely fuel consumption that is around 20 per cent better overall than an equivalent petrol-powered vehicle (at 45 mpg US - around 54 mpg Imperial), but also sporty performance, with the benchmark 0 to 60 mph sprint taking less than nine seconds.

Like the Touareg Hybrid, the Jetta is a parallel hybrid, using a decoupling clutch that can disengage the petrol motor for pure electric drive (or when coasting or braking), disengage the electric motor (for higher speeds or when the battery charge is low), or combine the two units for maximum power. Using electric power alone, the Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid can be driven at speeds of up to 70 kmh (44 mph) and over a distance of two kilometres (1.3 miles), depending on conditions. For maximum performance, both the TSI engine and the electric motor combine, giving peak power of 170 PS. This is the first use of the 1.4-litre turbocharged engine in America, and it offers the same power and more torque (250 Nm, 184 lbs ft) than the normally aspirated 2.5-litre engine that is commonly used in the Jetta there.

2013 Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid
A lithium-ion battery supplies the energy for the electric motor. It is located behind the rear seat bench, making no compromises on interior space. The battery is made up of 60 individual cells, each with an energy capacity of five Ah. Together they produce a nominal voltage of 220 Volts and an energy capacity of 1.1 kWh and weigh 38.5 kg. Cooling is provided by an integrated fan, operated by the battery's own management system that performs diagnostic, monitoring and safety functions, including disconnecting the battery in the event of an accident.

Power is directed to the front wheels via a seven-speed dual clutch DSG gearbox, which is efficient and lightweight, at 74 kg. Despite the extra weight of the battery, electric motor and extra safety modifications to the vehicle's structure, the Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid weighs only 100 kg more than the non-hybrid Jetta at less than 1,500 kg in total.

Provided the battery contains sufficient charge, the Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid is switched to electric drive mode either automatically (at speeds of up to 60 kmh or 37 mph) or at the press of a button next to the gear lever (up to 70 kmh or 44 mph).

When the driver releases the accelerator pedal at higher speeds (up to 135 kmh or 84 mph) the TSI engine is decoupled, reducing drag torque losses, and maximising fuel efficiency. Under braking, the Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid switches to a battery regeneration mode, which decouples the TSI engine and uses the electric motor as a generator. The generating power of the motor rises with increased brake pedal travel. At higher speeds, or when the battery charge is depleted, the TSI motor provides extra power to recharge the battery, however even in these situations the charging is interspersed with electric driving phases to maximise fuel efficiency.

Externally, the Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid can be identified by aerodynamic modifications including a new front spoiler, a rear diffuser and a rear spoiler that help to improve the car's Cd value by 10 per cent. There are also new headlights with LED running lights, LED rear lights and unique 15-inch alloy wheels with low rolling resistance tyres. 'Hybrid' badges adorn the front wings, bootlid and modified front grille, where the Volkswagen logo is presented on a blue background for the first time.

The interior of the Hybrid is very much like that of any other Jetta, although the electric drive, along with a newly designed exhaust system, an acoustic windscreen and thicker front side windows help to make this the quietest vehicle Volkswagen has ever offered in this class.

One key interior difference is in the instruments. If the driver selects the 'Hybrid' menu in the multifunction display, the current drive mode is shown, while a meter indicates energy flow via arrows. The same screen also shows the battery charge state. Beneath the energy flow diagram is what is known as the ePower meter, which indicates the power provided by the electric motor.

The tachometer is replaced by the Power meter, a multifunction display on the left of the instrument cluster. This informs the driver of the operation of the hybrid system: 'Ready', 'Charge', 'Eco', 'Boost' or 'TSI'. The audio system, meanwhile, has a 'zero emissions' menu. This offers a graphical display of the past 30 minutes of driving time, with a bar showing emissions each minute: a full, 100 per cent bar represents no emissions at all.

Standard equipment on the US-spec SE model includes a 2Zone climate control system that works without the TSI engine running, a 'Premium 8' sound system, Bluetooth phone integration, MDI interface for iPod connectivity and a leather-wrapped multifunction steering wheel. Moving up to SEL1 specification adds 16-inch alloy wheels, a glass sunroof, RNS 315 satellite navigation, electric driver's seat adjustment, heated front seats and keyless entry. The top SEL2 specification adds to this further, with 17-inch wheels, fog lights, bi-xenon headlights with cornering function, a reversing camera and a 400-Watt Fender sound system.

The Volkswagen Jetta Hybrid launches in North America in November 2012; there are no current plans to sell this model in the UK.

Thursday, May 3, 2012

Pics of Mustang Cars

Wednesday, May 2, 2012

Ferrari F430

Ferrari F430

Ferrari F430
The Ferrari F430 hails the arrival of a whole new generation of Ferrari V8-engined berlinettas. Every inch of the car was inspired by the engineering research carried out at Ferrari's Gestione Sportiva F1 racing division.

The result is a highly innovative design characterised by cutting-edge technologies perfected for use on a road-going car. The most important of these is the electronic differential (E-Diff), initially developed by Ferrari for it's F1 single-seaters and designed to make to make the most of the engine's torque to optimise traction, and the handily placed steering wheel-mounted commutator switch (better known to the Scuderia's drivers as manettino) which directly controls the integrated systems governing vehicle dynamics.

The Ferrari F430's light, compact 4,308 cc engine is completely new. Needless to say, its performance is outstanding.

The Ferrari F430's aerodynamics are also highly innovative for a road car: its shape has been honed to generate special flows to increase downforce and improve cooling.


The Ferrari F430's Pininfarina-designed shape is inspired by the car's exceptional engineering. Each and every styling cue highlights the aggression and performance of a thoroughbred Ferrari. The F430's nose is characterised by two distinctive air intakes that channel air into generously dimensioned radiators that cool the powerful engine.


Just lie the predecessor the 360 Modena, the F430 has an aluminium chassis. The choice of the aluminium and the design methods used have allowed considerable structural stiffness and excellent driver and passenger protection to be combined with weight reduction.

2005 Ferrari F430

The Ferrari F430 is powered by a new 90 degree V8 featuring Ferrari's traditionally uncompromising design approach with a flat-plane crank (180 degrees between throws).

This is an all-new unit that does not share any components with the 360 Modena's engine. Despite a 20% increase in engine displacement (from 3,586 cc to 4,308 cc), engine weight has grown minimally by just 4 kg, while performance is considerably improved across the board. Torque has increased by 25% (465 Nm at 5,250 rpm) and power by 23% (490 hp at 8,500 rpm).

E-Diff (Electronic Differential)

The E-Diff or electronic differential has been used for years in F1 single-seaters to guarantee maximum grip out of bends, eliminating wheel spin. On the road it is a formidable technological refinement that improves roadholding.

The E-Diff consists of three main subsystems:

A high-pressured hydraulic system, shared with the F1 gearbox 9if present)
A control system consisting of valve, sensors and electronic control unit;
A mechanical unit housed in the left side of the gearbox
Transmission and F1 Gearbox

The Ferrari F430 features a new cast aluminium transmission casing that houses the gearbox in unit with the electronic differential and bevel type final drive, as well as the engine oil tank. The 6-speed gearbox incorporates multicone synchronizers, while both the 6th gear and the final drive have been lengthened to make the most of the greater power and torque of the new engine as well as to guarantee reliability.

Manettino and Vehicle Dynamics

Just like in Formula 1, the Ferrari F430 driver can change various areas of the set-up of his car using a single-sector set on the steering wheel.

The Manettino, as it is called by Scuderia Ferrari drives, is a communication switch that has been adopted directly from racing and allows the driver maximum efficiency and speed in controlling the car's various functions. This switch quickly and simply controls the electronics governing suspension settling and the CST stability and traction control, E-Diff and the change speed of the F1 transmission, as well as the integration between each of these individual functions. The settings available to the driver have been concentrated in five different strategies. These, in ascending order according to the level of performance, are:

ICE: performance is significantly restricted (maximum intervention by the stability and traction control) for maximum stability - indispensable for driving in very slippery conditions (snow or ice).
LOW GRIP: this position ensures stability both on dry and wet surfaces with poor grip (rain), gritty roads or particularly broken or undulating blacktop. In this configuration, unlike ICE, the driver can still use the F1 paddle shift.
SPORT: is the standard setting that strikes the best balance between stability and performance. Ideal for the open road, this position provides an optimum compromise for maximum performance in safety. Compared to the previous settings, SPORT adopts a more sporting configuration for the adaptive suspension to maximise performance, handling and stability at high speeds.
RACE: this setting must be used only on the race track. Gear changing is even faster to minimise gear shift times. CST intervention is reduced to a minimum (the engine management only cuts the engine when absolutely necessary).
CST activates and deactivates the stability and traction control. With the Manettino set to off, the driver has full control over the cars reactions. The only driver aids that remain active are those that cannot be overridden such as ABS and EBD (electronic brake distribution).

Traditionally, Ferrari has clothed its mechanical package in forms that are dictated by the need for maximum aerodynamic efficiency. In the case of the Ferrari F430, this principle has been developed to the extreme, employing exactly the same engineering approach to computer development models and wind tunnel testing as used by the F1 team.

Perfecting the Ferrari F430's aerodynamics has brought about a 50% increase in downforce compared to the 360 Modena, thus increasing high-sped stability and the car's active safety. At 200 km/h that equates to 45kg more downforce than the 360 Modena and this becomes 85kg at 300 km/h, amounting to a total of 280kg.

The spoiler on the trailing edge of the engine cover works in conjunction with the new diffuser between to rear wheels. The latter features similar fences (deflectors) to those used on Ferrari's single-seaters, and increases the speed of air flow under the tail of the car creating an area of depression ad the ground effect that pulls the car down.

Ferrari F430 Technical Specifications

Overall length: 4512 mm (177.6 in)
Overall width: 1923 mm (75.7 in)
Height: 1214 mm (47.8 in)
Wheelbase: 2600 mm (102.4 in)
Front track: 1669 mm (65.7 in)
Rear track: 1616 mm (63.6 in)
Kerb weight: 1450 kg (3197 lb)
Type: 90° V8
Bore/stroke: 92 mm x 81 mm (3.50 x 3.03 in)
Unit displacement: 538.5 cm3 (32.86 cu in)
Total displacement: 4,308 cm3 (262.89 cu in)
Compression ratio: 11.3:1
Maximum power: 360.4 kW (490 CV) @ 8500 rpm
Maximum torque: 465 Nm (343 lb ft) @ 5250 rpm
Specific horse power: 114 CV/l
Maximum speed: >315 km/h (>196 mph)
0-100 km/h (0-62 mph): 4.0 s
Fuel Consumption
Combined: 18.3 l/100 km
CO2 Emission
Combined: 420 g/km

Tuesday, May 1, 2012

Rover 75 Vanden Plas

Rover 75 Vanden Plas

Rover 75 Vanden Plas
The Rover 75 started life as a project for the complete re-skin of the Rover 600, under the control of Rover Group designer Richard Woolley, but following the BMW takeover it was quickly decided that the Rover 600 would not be re-skinned but replaced by an entirely new model. Work on the new model, codenamed "R40" progressed well with little operational interference from BMW, with the basic design having received an enthusiastic response from BMW management and both BMW and Rover believing that a retro design would be the ideal choice for Rover. At the same time it offered a distinct marketing separation from the E46 BMW 3 Series in the executive segment.

Under the skin, there was a first attempt at considerable component and concept sharing with BMW to replace the input of the previous partner Honda. To replace the previously employed Perkins-developed engines that were efficient, but noisey, BMW provided its own common rail motor (known in the Rover 75 as the M47R). This diesel engine was a mildly de-tuned BMW 2.0 litre turbodiesel, the same core engine being used at the same time in the 3 & 5-Series, and the Land-Rover Freelander.

Petrol engines provided were Rovers own K series in 4 cylinder form, of 1.8 litre displacement, with DOHC 16 valve form with Rover/ Motorola MEMS engine management. The quad cam KV6 was provided in 2.0 and 2.5 litre displacement with 24 valves and Siemens engine management. The 2.0 litre was dropped on introduction of the 1.8 litre turbo as these were more favourable to the UK company fleet market (company cars are taxed by the UK Government according to carbon dioxide emissions). Gear boxes on all manual cars were Getrag 5 speed fed via a hydraulic clutch, and automatic cars were fitted with a 5 speed Jatco unit.

2002 Rover 75 Vanden Plas
Press speculation at the launch that the 75 was based on the BMW 5 Series thanks to its large size and especially the central tunnel in the chassis (normally only found on rear wheel drive cars) and the BMW Z-Link suspension from the rear wheel drive BMW 3-Series, was misinformed. The central tunnel was built into the chassis to increase structural rigidity, using a BMW-developed floorpan concept that had explored front wheel drive but which had been rejected and remains unused by the BMW brand up to the present day. As the 75 took shape, this core engineering was passed over to Rover and evolved into the Rover 75 structure. The tunnel concept with a front wheel drive chassis & Z-axle was subsequently also used by BMW for its new Mini, and remains in production, due to its extreme stiffness and resultant excellent chassis control.

The car quickly attracted praise for its characteristics, including its ride quality, interior, and traditional looks. Critics of the car labelled its styling too "retro", suggesting it had been designed with an older buyer in mind, was not 'sporting' enough when compared to the competition. However, the 75 won a series of international awards including various "most beautiful car" awards, including one in Italy.

Assembly originally took place at Cowley, but in 2000, following the break up of the Rover Group and the split with BMW, production was moved to Longbridge. 2001 saw the introduction of the Rover 75 Tourer (developed alongside the saloon but never authorised for production by BMW), swiftly followed by the MG ZT and MG ZT-T, more sporting interpretations of the model, differentiated by modified, sporting chassis settings and colour and trim derivatives. Between 2000 and 2003, there were few changes to the range, the biggest being the 2.5 litre V6 engine being joined by a low pressure turbocharged 1.8 litre, 4-cylinder engine. The introduction of the "greener" 1.8 litre turbo greatly benefited British company car drivers who are taxed on carbon dioxide emissions. A customisation programme, Monogram, was launched, allowing buyers to order their car in a wider range of exterior paint colours and finishes, different interior trims and with optional extras installed during production.